Plain Text and XML.
Dave Thomas: XML sucks because it’s being used wrongly. It is being used by people who view it as being an encapsulation of semantics and data, and it’s not. XML is purely a way of structuring files, and as such, really doesn’t add much to the overall picture. XML came from a document preparation tradition. First there was GML, a document preparation system, then SGML, a document preparation system, then HTML, a document preparation system, and now XML. All were designed as ways humans could structure documents. Now we’ve gotten to the point where XML has become so obscure and so complex to write, that it can no longer be written by people. If you talk to people in Sun about their libraries that generate XML, they say humans cannot read this. It’s not designed for human consumption. Yet we’re carrying around all the baggage that’s in there, because it’s designed for humans to read. So XML is a remarkably inefficient encoding system. It’s a remarkably difficult to use encoding system, considering what it does. And yet it’s become the lingua franca for talking between applications, and that strikes me as crazy.